Public order index

Core principles and legislation

1 Core principles

2 Legal framework

2.1 The right to peaceful assembly (basics: the right to protest)

2.1.1 Negative duty

2.1.2 Positive duty

2.2 Starting point for policing public protest: the presumption in favour of peaceful assembly

2.2.1 Organisers’ intentions

2.3 Restricting the right to peaceful protest

2.4 Principle of proportionality

2.5 Protests on private land

2.6 Banning a public procession

2.7 The rights to freedom of belief and expression

2.8 Restricting the right to freedom of expression

2.8.1 Breach of the peace

2.8.2 Police action

2.8.3 Offences of intentional harassment, alarm or distress (sections 4A and 5 of the Public Order Act 1986)

2.8.4 Incitement to hatred

2.8.4.1 Racial hatred

2.8.4.2 Religious hatred

2.8.5 Supporting or glorifying terrorism

2.8.6 Using freedom of expression to destroy the human rights of others

2.8.7 Threats to life

2.9 Use of containment as a crowd control measure

Legislative variations for Northern Ireland

1 Legal framework

1.1 Starting point for policing public protest: the presumption in favour of peaceful assembly

1.2 Organisers’ intentions

1.3 Restricting the right to peaceful protest

1.4 Principle of proportionality

1.5 Banning a public procession

1.6 Offences of intentional harassment, alarm or distress (ss 4A and 5 of the Public Order Act)

1.7 Incitement to hatred

Police use of force

1 General principles

2 Core questions

3 The Criminal Law Act 1967, the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984, Common Law and the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008

4 European Court of Human Rights

5 Commander considerations regarding use of force

5.1 Example considerations

Command

1 Gold commander

1.1 Role and responsibilities

1.2 Responsibilities to the silver commander

2 Silver commander

2.1 Role and responsibilities

2.2 Link between bronze commanders and the gold commander

3 Bronze commander role and responsibilities

4 PSU commander

5 Public order command structure diagram

6 Sub bronze commander

6.1 Command structure diagram (sub bronze commander)

7 Public order tactical adviser

8 Command of large-scale operations

8.1 BMU command

9 Accreditation of commanders

10 Public order command protocols

11 Understanding the requirement

11.1 Gold strategy

11.2 Unique operational requirements

12 Tactical and operational parameters

13 Resource considerations

14 Policing style considerations

15 Potential outcomes

16 Tactical plan

16.1 Additional considerations

17 Deployment of forward intelligence teams

18 Taking and retaining photographic images

18.1 Wood v Commissioner of the Police of the Metropolis

18.2 Considerations and principles

19 Communications interoperability

20 Public order deployment planning

Planning and deployment

1 Disorder model

1.1 State of normality

1.2 Tension

1.3 Disorder

1.4 Serious disorder/riot

1.5 Unrest

1.6 Background information

1.7 Disorder model considerations

2 Public order and the national decision model

2.1 Gather information and intelligence

2.1.1 Force-wide strategic threat and risk assessment

2.2 Assess threat and risk and develop a working strategy

2.2.1 Undertaking a threat assessment

2.2.2 Working strategy

2.3 Consider powers and policies

2.4 Identify options and contingencies

2.5 Take action and review what happened

2.6 Principles of intelligence

2.6.1 Intelligence coordinator

3 Crime function

3.1 Investigating officer/senior investigating officer (bronze crime)

4 Working with partners

4.1 Multi-agency protocols

4.2 Safety advisory group

4.3 Police event safety considerations

Tactical options

1 Air support

1.1 Air support: considerations

2 Armed officers

2.1 Armed officers: considerations

3 Arrest teams

3.1 Arrest teams: considerations

4 Artificial lighting

4.1 Artificial lighting: considerations

5 Attenuating energy projectiles

6 Automated Number Plate Recognition (ANPR)

6.1 ANPR: considerations

7 Barriers

7.1 Barriers: considerations

8 Batons

8.1 Batons: considerations

9 Community mediators

9.1 Community mediators: considerations

10 Containment

11 Cordons and intercepts

11.1 Cordons and intercepts: considerations

12 CS smoke

13 Cycle tactics

13.1 Cycle tactics: considerations

14 Dispersal

14.1 Dispersal: considerations

15 Evidence gathering team

15.1 Evidence gathering team: considerations

16 Forward intelligence team

16.1 Forward intelligence team: considerations

17 Mounted police

17.1 Mounted police: considerations

18 Mutual aid

18.1 Mutual aid: considerations

19 Negotiators

19.1 Negotiators: considerations

20 Normal policing

20.1 Normal policing: considerations

21 Obstacles

21.1 Obstacles: considerations

22 Police dogs

22.1 Police dogs: considerations

23 Police liaison team

23.1 Police liaison team: considerations

24 Police support units

24.1 Level 3 PSU (beat duty unit)

24.2 Level 2 PSU trained

24.3 Considerations

24.4 Level 1 PSU trained

24.4.1 Considerations

25 Protected officers

25.1 Protected officers: considerations

26 Public order medics

26.1 Public order medics: considerations

27 Screening smoke

28 Shield tactics

28.1 Shield tactics: considerations

29 Vehicle tactics

29.1 Vehicle tactics: considerations

30 Water cannon

31 Welfare provision

31.1 Welfare provision: considerations

32 Withdrawal

32.1 Withdrawal: considerations

Communication

1 Media relations

2 Developing the media plan

2.1 Pre-operation or initial stages of a spontaneous incident

2.2 During the operation

2.3 Post operation or incident

3 Staff briefing on the media

3.1 Members of the media

4 Communicating directly with the public

4.1 Community mediators and crowd engagement

4.2 Crowd behaviour considerations

4.3 Developing a crowd engagement plan

4.3.1 HMIC example

4.4 Communicating with crowds

5 Police response to protest

5.1 Establishing early dialogue

5.1.1 Aims and objectives of early dialogue

5.1.2 Early dialogue considerations

5.2 Responding to the protest crowd dynamic

5.2.1 Phased approach to communicating with the protest crowd

Policing football

1 Partnership, cooperation and engagement

1.1 Police service and football clubs

1.2 Engagement with supporters

1.2.1 Definitions of risk and non-risk supporters

2 Key roles

2.1 Force football policing lead (police commander)

2.2 Public order/public safety (POPS) command

2.3 Dedicated football officer (DFO)

2.3.1 Roles and responsibilities

2.4 Football spotter

2.4.1 Operational spotter deployment

2.5 United Kingdom Football Policing Unit

2.6 British Transport Police

2.7 Safety officer

2.8 Stewards

2.9 Football Association, Premier League and Football League

3 Key documents

3.1 Statement of intent

3.2 Charging arrangements for special police services at football matches

3.2.1 Key issues

3.2.2 Special police services

3.2.3 The footprint

3.2.4 Signed agreements

3.2.5 Disputes

4 Force football resource considerations

5 Football event categories

6 Briefing

6.1 Initial, interim and final assessments

6.2 Debriefing and review

Reference material