Investigation index

Introduction

1 Criminal investigator

2 Principles of investigation

3 Ethics

4 Investigative skills

5 Effective investigations

6 Benefits

7 Volume crime

8 Serious crime

9 Joint and major incident investigations

10 Characteristics of crime

10.1 Information sources

10.2 Response to crime

10.3 Modus operandi

10.4 Victims, witnesses, community

11 Evidence

11.1 Relevance

11.2 Circumstantial evidence

11.3 Admissibility

11.3.1 PACE provisions

11.4 Best evidence

11.5 Bad character

12 Legal powers

12.1 RIPA

12.2 PACE

12.3 HRA

12.3.1 Article 14

12.3.1.1 Victim of a violation

12.3.1.2 Types of victim

12.3.2 Police obligations

12.4 YJCEA

12.4.1 Amendments

12.5 Legal knowledge sources

13 National structure

13.1 CBA portfolio, SCT portfolio

13.2 National and local policies

13.3 PIP

13.3.1 PIP level 1

13.3.2 PIP level 2

13.3.2.1 Serious and complex offences

13.3.2.2 Escalation

13.3.3 PIP level 3

13.3.4 PIP level 4

13.3.5 PIP structure

13.3.6 PIP curriculum

13.3.7 Curriculum governance

Investigation process

1 Process of investigation diagram

2 Instigation

2.1 Call takers

3 Initial investigation

3.1 Fast-track actions

3.1.1 Initial investigation factors

3.1.2 Initial investigation conclusion

4 Further investigation

5 Suspect management

6 Case management

7 Material

7.1 Potential sources

7.2 Formats of material

7.2.1 Material generated

7.3 Reasonable and relevant enquiries

7.3.1 Towards or away

7.4 Relevant material

7.4.1 Example of relevant material

7.4.2 Golden hour

7.4.2.1 Golden hour considerations

Managing investigations

1 Strategy development

1.1 Standard method

1.2 Investigative actions

1.3 Investigative strategies

2 Managing resources

2.1 Resource types

2.2 Prioritisation and proportionality

2.2.1 Experts

2.2.2 Managing expert advisers

3 Managing people

3.1 Behavioural traits

3.2 Welfare considerations

3.3 Welfare needs

3.4 Supporting individuals

3.5 Serious/long-standing enquiries

4 Managing risk

4.1 Risk areas

5 Quality assurance

5.1 QA processes

5.2 CSU

5.3 Further action

5.4 Crime investigation standards

6 Managing actions

7 Record keeping

7.1 Auditable decision making

7.2 Handovers

7.3 Policy files

8 Exhibits management

8.1 Responsibilities of the exhibits officer

8.2 Indexing

9 Managing scenes

9.1 Identifying scenes

9.2 Securing the scene

9.3 Cross-contamination

9.4 Preserving the scene

9.5 Managing the media

9.6 Searching and examining the scene

9.7 Releasing the scene

Working with victims and witnesses

1 Formal definitions

1.1 Significant witness

1.2 Vulnerable or intimidated witness

1.2.1 Special measures

2 Witness management in an investigation

2.1 Witness identification strategy

2.1.1 Identifying and locating witnesses

2.2 Initial contact strategy

2.2.1 Rewards

2.2.2 Witness as a scene

2.2.2.1 Support for investigators

2.2.3 Fast-track witness interviews

2.2.3.1 Potential outcomes

2.2.3.2 Approach

2.2.4 Initial risk assessment

3 Witness interviews

3.1 Witness assessment

3.1.1 Achieving best evidence

3.2 Witness interview strategy

3.3 Elements of the strategy

3.4 Video of witness interview

3.5 Welfare issues

3.5.1 Witness intermediary scheme

3.5.2 Witness intimidation

3.6 Witness protection

3.6.1 Local measures

3.7 Reluctant witnesses

3.8 Hostile witnesses

3.9 Witness refusal to make a statement

3.10 Information to victims/witnesses

4 Victim and witness support

4.1 Sources of support

4.2 Victim personal statement

5 Witness anonymity

5.1 Investigation anonymity orders

6 Family liaison

6.1 The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry (1994)

6.2 Aims

6.3 Objectives

6.4 Victimology

6.5 Family liaison strategy

6.5.1 Exit strategy

6.6 Family liaison structure

6.6.1 Senior investigating officer/senior identification manager

6.6.1.1 Cases of estrangement

6.6.2 Family liaison coordinator

6.6.2.1 Family liaison coordinator responsibilities

6.6.3 Family liaison officer

6.6.3.1 Family liaison officer attributes

6.6.3.2 Family liaison officer activities

Working with suspects

1 TIE strategy

1.1 Constructing a TIE category

1.2 Populating and prioritising a TIE category

1.3 TIE parameters

1.3.1 Suspect parameters

1.3.2 Time parameters

1.4 Elimination criteria

1.4.1 HOLMES2 elimination codes

1.4.1.1 Forensic elimination

1.4.1.2 Alibi

1.4.2 Not eliminated

1.4.3 Implication and elimination testing

1.4.4 Consent

1.5 TIE enquiries

1.6 Mass screening enquiries

1.7 Not eliminated TIE subjects

2 Arrest strategy

2.1 Timing an arrest

2.2 Background checks

2.3 Searches

2.3.1 Locard’s principle of exchange

2.4 Planning an arrest

2.5 Pre-arrest briefings

2.6 Post arrest

2.6.1 Significant statements

3 Identification of suspects

3.1 ADVOKATE

3.2 Identification and recognition

3.3 Identification procedure

3.4 Suspect not known

3.5 Suspect known

3.6 Video identification techniques

3.7 Voice identification

European investigations

1 Suspect extradition

2 UK prosecutions

2.1 ILO

2.1.1 Working with the ILO

2.1.2 International enquiries

2.2 CPS

2.3 SIO

2.4 National Police Coordination Centre

2.5 NCA liaison officers

2.6 INTERPOL

2.7 Europol

2.7.1 Europol information System

2.8 ACRO

2.9 Police-to-police enquiries

2.9.1 Authorities

2.9.2 Data protection

2.9.3 Overseas deployment

2.10 Mutual legal assistance

2.10.1 Letter of request

2.11 Collecting a suspect from abroad

2.11.1 Key steps

3 Foreign prosecutions

3.1 Potential differences

3.2 Providing assistance abroad

3.3 Limitations

3.4 Joint investigations

4 Legal framework

4.1 SIS

Schengen Information System (second generation) SISII

1 SIRENE Bureau

1.1 Participating SISII countries

2 UK agencies with access to SISII

2.1 SISII at the Border

2.1.1 The National Border Targeting Centre (NBTC)

2.1.2 Border Force

2.1.2.1 Detention at Ports Powers

2.1.2.2 Juxtaposed controls

2.1.2.3 Memorandum of understanding (MoU) between the police and the BF

2.1.2.4 Action to be taken by the police

2.1.2.5 Legal obligation under SISII

2.2 Home Office funded police forces

2.3 Non-Home Office funded police forces

2.4 Other law enforcement agencies

2.5 SISII data rules

2.5.1 Requests to access, delete or correct subject data

2.5.2 Subject access requests for UK data where SISII data is involved

2.6 Validating alerts

2.7 Linking alerts

2.7.1 Removing a link

2.8 Fingerprints

2.9 Forms

2.10 Geographical targeting

2.11 Flagging

2.12 Hit and match

3 Article 26 alerts

3.1 Requirements for creating an alert

3.1.1 Obtaining a domestic warrant

3.1.2 Obtaining force/LEA authority

3.1.3 Obtaining authority from a relevant prosecuting authority

3.1.4 Obtaining a signed Part 3 extradition warrant

3.1.5 Which court can issue an extradition warrant?

3.2 Differences between extradition from category 1 and category 2 countries

3.3 Create the alert

3.3.1 SISII hits and matches

3.4 Responding to an Article 26 alert

3.4.1 Search powers

3.4.1.1 Conviction warrant

3.4.1.2 Accusation warrant

3.4.2 Identity documents

3.4.3 Pre-planned arrests

3.4.4 Caution

3.4.5 Court appearance

3.4.6 Category 2 countries

3.4.7 Interval between arrest and presentation at court

4 Article 32 alerts

4.1 Create an Article 32 alert – Adult not at risk

4.2 Create an Article 32 alert – Adult at risk

4.3 Create an Article 32 alert – Juvenile at risk

4.3.1 Advice on ages

4.3.2 UK definitions

4.4 Post-hit process

4.4.1 UK circulation

4.4.2 Non-UK circulation

5 Article 34 alerts

5.1 Creating an Article 34 alert

5.1.1 Locating witnesses

5.1.2 Locating persons summoned

5.1.2.1 Investigation stage

5.1.2.2 Conviction stage

5.1.3 Locating persons served with criminal judgments

5.2 Responding to an Article 34 alert

6 Article 36

6.1 Discreet check information

6.2 Article 36(2) Alerts for criminal offences

6.3 Creating an Article 36(2) alert

6.3.1 Creating an Article 36 alert for vehicles and containers

6.3.2 Creating an Article 36 alert for persons

6.4 The use of Article 36(2) alerts for ViSOR nominals

6.5 Article 36(3) Alerts for threats to national security

6.6 Responding to an Article 36(2) or 36(3) alert

6.6.1 Immediate response alerts

7 Article 38 alerts

7.1 Creating an Article 38 alert

7.1.1 Seizure description field

7.1.1.1 1. Seize and retain (SR)

7.1.1.2 2. Seize for evidence (EV)

7.2 Responding to an Article 38 alert

7.2.1 Article 39(1)

7.2.2 Article 39(2)

7.2.3 Article 39(3)

7.2.4 Action to be taken

7.2.5 Important note: requirements for seizing property

7.3 Brief overview of powers

7.3.1 Removal and Disposal of Vehicles Regulations 1986 and the Road Traffic Act 1988

7.3.2 Common law/PACE ‒ vehicles involved in crime

7.3.3 Section 165 of the Road Traffic Act 1988

7.4 Key rules

7.5 Seize and retain

7.6 Seize for evidence

7.7 Invalidated travel documents

8 Misused identity

Investigative interviewing

1 Professionalism and integrity

2 Principles and ethics

2.1 Benefits

2.2 Principle 1

2.3 Principle 2

2.4 Principle 3

2.5 Principle 4

2.6 Principle 5

2.7 Principle 6

2.8 Principle 7

3 National strategic steering group

4 PEACE framework

4.1 Planning and preparation

4.1.1 Interview plan

4.1.2 Interviewee

4.1.3 Practical arrangements

4.1.4 Written interview plan

4.2 Engage and explain

4.2.1 Objectives of the interview

4.2.2 Routines and expectations

4.3 Account, clarification, challenge

4.3.1 Questions

4.3.2 Open-ended

4.3.3 Specific-closed

4.3.4 Forced-choice

4.3.5 Multiple

4.3.6 Leading

4.4 Closure

4.5 Evaluation

5 Witness considerations

5.1 Witness statements

5.2 Crime report

5.3 Structuring a witness interview

5.3.1 Free recall

5.3.1.1 Note-taking

6 Suspect considerations

6.1 Working with legal advisers

6.1.1 Legal adviser role

6.1.1.1 Advising their client

6.1.2 Meeting legal advisers

6.1.3 Legal adviser information

6.1.3.1 Custody officer information

6.1.3.2 Removal of legal adviser

6.1.4 Pre-interview briefings

6.1.4.1 Plan and prepare the pre-interview briefing

6.1.4.2 Disclosure strategy

6.1.4.3 Material and information

6.1.5 Representations

6.1.5.1 Reasons for representations

6.1.5.2 Actions required

6.2 Interview structure

6.2.1 Downstream monitoring

6.2.2 Structuring the suspect interview

6.2.2.1 Starting an interview

6.2.2.2 Interviewer’s objectives

6.2.2.3 Suspect’s account

6.2.3 Challenging accounts

6.2.4 Necessity to arrest

6.2.4.1 Richardson v CC West Midlands Police

6.2.4.2 Hayes v CC Merseyside Police

6.3 Legal issues

6.3.1 No comment interview

6.3.2 Adverse inference

6.3.2.1 Six conditions

6.3.2.2 Section 34

6.3.2.3 Adverse inference package

6.3.2.4 Defence statement

6.3.2.5 Prepared statement

6.3.3 Special warnings

6.3.4 Bad character evidence

6.3.4.1 Criminal Justice Act

6.3.4.2 Propensity to commit

6.3.4.3 Appropriate conditions

National policing position papers

Investigative strategies

Search

1 Introduction

2 Identifying and locating sources of material

3 Legal search powers

4 Risk assessment

5 Record keeping

6 Evidence handling

7 Prioritising searches

8 Search methods

8.1 Initial searches

8.2 Open door searches

8.3 Fully managed searches

9 Further advice

House-to-house enquiries

1 House-to-house strategy

1.1 Methodology

1.2 Suspect and witness identification

1.3 Providing reassurance

1.4 Location parameters

1.5 Time parameters

1.6 Subject parameters

1.7 Timing house-to-house enquiries

1.7.1 Planned enquiries

1.8 Identifying resources

1.9 Briefing

1.10 Tools

1.10.1 Questionnaires

1.10.2 Aides-memoires

1.10.3 Leaflets

1.11 Mass screening

Intelligence strategy

1 Introduction

2 Intelligence sources

2.1 Types of intelligence sources

2.2 Trained analysts

Passive data generators

1 Material

1.1 General material

1.2 Specific material

1.2.1 Setting parameters

1.2.2 Reviewing parameters

2 Passive data strategy

2.1 Speed of access

2.2 Technical issues

2.3 Volume of data

2.4 Ownership

2.5 Legal constraints

2.6 Legal and procedural advisers

2.7 Integrity

2.8 Interviewing

2.8.1 Identifying relevant material

2.8.2 Interview planning

3 CCTV

3.1 Technical terms

3.2 Training, equipment and policy

3.3 First trawl

3.4 Strategy

3.4.1 Setting objectives

3.5 Setting parameters

3.5.1 Time parameters

3.5.1.1 Time known

3.5.1.2 Scene visits by offenders

3.5.1.3 Time not known

3.5.1.4 Owner’s requirements

3.5.2 Location parameters

3.5.2.1 Testing accounts

3.6 Changing parameters

3.7 Locating CCTV

3.7.1 Systems

3.7.2 Record keeping

3.7.3 Prioritising trawls

3.7.3.1 Factors to consider

3.8 CCTV legal responsibilities

3.9 Retrieving CCTV

3.9.1 Prioritising retrievals

3.9.2 Retrieving CCTV from vehicles

3.10 Post-retrieval actions

3.11 CCTV exhibits

3.11.1 Continuity and integrity

3.11.1.1 CDs and DVDs

3.11.1.2 Transport media

3.11.1.3 Digital video recorders

3.11.2 Continuity statements

3.12 Viewing CCTV

3.12.1 Timely viewing

3.12.2 Visiting the incident location

3.12.2.1 Online maps

3.12.2.2 Layout plans

3.12.3 Viewing conditions

3.12.3.1 Demands of viewing

3.12.3.2 Breaks

3.12.4 Viewing parameters

3.12.5 Reference images

3.12.6 Viewing logs

3.13 CCTV as an investigative tool

3.14 CCTV evidence dissemination

3.14.1 Dissemination to the police

3.14.1.1 Mass circulation

3.14.1.2 Group viewings

3.14.1.3 Controlled viewing

3.14.2 Dissemination to partners

3.14.3 Dissemination to CHIS

3.14.4 Poster campaigns

3.14.4.1 Benefits

3.14.5 Dissemination to the media

3.14.6 Rights of third parties

3.14.7 Recognition evidence

3.14.7.1 Showing CCTV to victims

3.14.7.2 Showing CCTV to eyewitnesses

3.14.8 Specialist suspect ID methods

3.14.8.1 Using external providers

3.14.9 Confirming identity

3.14.10 Social networking sites

3.15 Interview preparation

3.15.1 Working copies in the interview

3.15.1.1 Poor-quality images

3.15.1.2 Still images

3.15.2 Compilation discs

3.15.3 Storyboards

3.15.4 Interview room

3.16 CCTV images and suspects

3.16.1 Pre-interview disclosure

3.16.2 Introducing footage

3.17 Disclosure and court preparation

3.17.1 Disclosure schedule

3.17.2 Digital images as exhibits

3.17.3 Trial preparation

3.17.4 Liaison

3.17.5 Court presentation

3.17.5.1 Detailed court presentation

3.17.6 Post-trial

3.18 CCTV retention and disposal

3.18.1 Image retention beyond CPIA

3.18.2 CCTV incapable of impacting on case

3.18.3 Undetected crime images

3.18.4 Disposal

4 Digital images

4.1 Digital images as evidence

4.2 Managing digital images

4.3 Types of digital images

4.3.1 Video identification

4.3.2 Capturing images of arrestees

4.3.3 Third-party images

5 Computer-based electronic evidence

5.1 Handling electronic evidence

5.1.1 Principle 1

5.1.2 Principle 2

5.1.3 Principle 3

5.1.4 Principle 4

Financial investigation

Effective financial investigation

1 Financial investigation

1.1 The benefits

2 Legislation used in financial investigation

2.1 The Proceeds of Crime Act 2002

3 Driving performance

4 Strategic implementation and planning

4.1 Management information

5 Proceeds of Crime Centre

6 Partnerships and cooperation

6.1 Information sharing

6.2 The role of the CPS

6.2.1 Other prosecuting agencies

7 Financial information

7.1 Accessing financial information

7.2 Use of the Joint Asset Recovery Database

7.3 Updating JARD

Using financial information

1 Accessing financial information

1.1 Information held by financial institutions

1.1.1 Automatic teller machines (ATMs)

1.2 Tasking financial investigators

1.3 Requesting information

1.4 Production orders

1.5 Account monitoring orders

1.6 Customer information orders

1.7 Disclosure of personal data

1.8 Legal professional privilege (LPP)

2 Finding information

2.1 Merchant service providers

2.2 Government departments and agencies

2.3 Credit reference agencies

2.3.1 Accessing credit reference agency information

2.4 The ELMER database

2.4.1 Access to suspicious activity reports

2.5 Information contained in intelligence systems

3 Use of financial intelligence

3.1 Maximising financial intelligence

3.1.1 What should I look out for?

3.1.2 What should I collect?

3.2 Suspicious activity reports

3.3 Recording and managing financial intelligence

3.4 Covert relationships

Money laundering

1 Investigating criminal property

2 Understanding money laundering

2.1 How to investigate money laundering

2.2 Who investigates?

3 Money laundering process guide

3.1 Key issues for money laundering investigations

4 Money laundering powers

4.1 Definitions

4.2 Section 327 POCA – concealing etc

4.3 Section 328 POCA – arrangements

4.4 Section 329 POCA – acquisition, use and possession

4.4.1 Self-laundering

4.5 Points to prove

4.6 Defences to money laundering

Asset recovery
Cash seizure

1 Cash seizure

1.1 Basic principles

1.2 Seizing cash as evidence under PACE

1.3 Appropriate cash seizure

1.3.1 Conditions

1.3.2 Grounds for suspicion

1.4 Minimum amount of cash

1.5 POCA search warrants

2 A guide for investigators

2.1 Order granted – what next?

2.2 Cash procedure

2.3 Further detention orders

2.4 Lawfulness

3 Release of the cash

4 Applying for forfeiture

4.1 Forfeiture of the cash

Forfeiture and deprivation

1 Seizure and removal of property

1.1 Powers to stop and seize vehicles

1.2 The Criminal Justice and Police Act 2001

1.3 The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971

1.3.1 What is the process?

1.4 The Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000

1.5 The Sexual Offences Act 2003

1.6 Third-party property claims

2 Terrorist property

2.1 The Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001

2.2 Forfeiture orders

2.3 Restraint orders

2.4 Freezing orders

2.5 Seize and detain

2.6 Forfeiture of cash – civil proceedings

Confiscation and recovery

1 Confiscation

1.1 Confiscation investigation

1.2 What is confiscation?

1.3 Who can conduct a confiscation investigation?

1.4 When is a confiscation investigation appropriate?

1.5 Time considerations

1.6 What are criminal lifestyle offences?

1.7 What is particular criminal conduct?

1.8 Role of the financial investigation unit 

1.9 The benefit amount

1.10 The confiscation hearing

1.11 No assets held

1.12 Revisiting a case

1.13 Referral to the financial investigation unit

2 Confiscation investigation process

2.1 Restraining assets

2.2 Order enforcement

2.3 Non-compliance

Training and accreditation

1 Roles and resources

1.1 Financial investigators and accredited financial investigators

1.2 Financial intelligence officers

1.3 Other staff

2 Training

2.1 Analysts with financial investigation training

2.2 Training for non-specialist police

2.3 Training for managers and senior officers

2.4 Financial investigators training

Communications strategy

1 Benefits

2 Sources of advice

3 Internal communications

3.1 Formal briefings

3.2 Briefing models

3.2.1 SAFCOM

4 External communications

4.1 Fast-track considerations

4.2 Press office

4.3 Press conferences

4.4 Media appeals

4.4.1 Identifying the offender

4.4.2 Locating the suspect

4.4.3 Witness appeals

Physical evidence

1 Types of physical evidence

2 Forensic strategy

2.1 Examining results

2.2 Exhibits

ANPR

1 Basic knowledge requirements

2 NADC

2.1 Material from other force areas

3 ANPR in investigations

3.1 Reactive investigations

3.1.1 Alibis

3.2 Proactive investigations

3.3 Mobile operations

3.4 Advantages

3.5 Limitations

4 ANPR retrieval and analysis

4.1 Analysis

4.2 Structured searches using specialist software

4.2.1 Data uses

4.3 Structured searches using the NADC

5 Geographical searches

5.1 Real-time/retrospective searches

5.2 Vehicle details

5.3 ANPR analysis

5.3.1 Crime pattern analysis

5.3.2 Subject profile analysis

5.3.3 Network analysis

5.3.4 Incident analysis

5.3.5 Results analysis

Policing drugs

Investigating fraud

Policing business crime

Crime in prisons

Reference material