Armed policing index

Legal framework

1 European Convention on Human Rights

1.1 Article 2 – right to life

1.1.1 Deaths resulting from state’s use of force

1.1.1.1 Absolutely necessary

1.2 Article 3 – prohibition of torture

1.2.1 Ribitsch v Austria

1.3 Article 8 – respect for private and family life

1.4 Article 14 – prohibition of discrimination

2 Acts relevant to armed policing

2.1 Human Rights Act considerations

2.2 Criminal Law Act

2.3 Police and Criminal Evidence Act

2.4 Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act

2.5 Health and safety legislation

2.5.1 Health and Safety at Work etc. Act

2.5.2 Other relevant health and safety legislation

3 Common law

3.1 Self-defence

3.1.1 Reasonable force

3.1.2 Scotland

3.2 Misconduct in public office

4 Police regulations

4.1 Use of force and firearms

4.2 Lawful orders

4.2.1 Improper and unlawful force

Use of force, firearms and less lethal weapons

1 Managing conflict and the use of force

2 Use of force and firearms

2.1 Reasonable force

2.1.1 Factors to assist in establishing whether a use of force is reasonable

2.2 UN basic principles

2.2.1 Code of Practice

2.3 Authority and discretion to use force and firearms

2.3.1 Individual responsibility and accountability

2.3.1.1 Influencing factors

2.4 Considerations when the use of force is unavoidable

3 Less lethal options

3.1 Less lethal weapons

3.1.1 Weapons approval

3.1.2 The systems approach

4 Command decisions

4.1 Context in which command decisions are made

4.2 Access to decisive information

4.3 Constraint and authorisation of action

Deployment of AFOs

1 Criteria for the deployment of AFOs

1.1 Reason to suppose

1.2 Destruction of animals

2 Authority to deploy AFOs

3 Self-deployment

4 Review of AFO deployment

5 Armed support to covert operations

5.1 Armed surveillance

5.2 Mobile armed support to surveillance

5.3 Operations to counter threats to life

Weapons and equipment

1 Introduction

2 Weapon selection

2.1 Operational requirement

2.2 Types of weapon

2.3 Ammunition

2.4 Ammunition configuration

2.4.1 Training munitions

2.4.2 Safety precautions

2.5 Acquisition of less lethal weapons

3 Storage

3.1 Administration and record keeping

3.2 Weapons maintenance

3.3 Destruction of surplus firearms

4 Equipment

4.1 Holsters

4.2 Optical sights and observation equipment

4.3 Forcible entry equipment

4.4 Respirators

4.5 Vehicle stopping and immobilisation devices

4.6 Body armour and ballistic protection

4.6.1 Risk assessment

4.6.2 CAST publications

4.6.3 PPE regulations

5 Clothing

5.1 Uniformed AFOs

5.2 Non-uniformed AFOs

5.2.1 Agreed markers

5.2.2 Ballistic protection

5.3 Non-uniformed unarmed officers

6 Specialist munitions

6.1 Pyrotechnics

6.1.1 Safe use

6.2 Percussion grenades

6.3 Chemical munitions (smoke)

6.4 CS munitions

6.4.1 Effects

6.4.2 Aftercare

6.5 CS/PAVA aerosols

Issue and carriage of firearms

1 Authorisation

1.1 Standing authority for the issue and carriage of firearms

1.2 Northern Ireland

1.3 Specific authority for the issue of firearms

2 Authorised firearms officer

2.1 Recording the issue of firearms and related equipment

3 Fitness for duty

3.1 Request to temporarily stand down

3.2 Personal responsibility to inform

4 Operational carriage of firearms

5 Armed response vehicles

6 Aircraft and vessels

Command

1 Command structure

2 Command roles and functions

2.1 Recording and accountability

2.2 Decision making

2.3 Tactical advice

2.1 Strategic firearms commander

2.2 Tactical firearms commander

2.3 Operational firearms commander

2.4 Tactical advisor

2.5 Command support

3 Initial command responsibility

3.1 Initial command of incidents

3.2 Transfer of command

3.2.1 Documentation

4 Strategy

4.1 Effective strategy

4.2 Sustained public protection

4.3 Tactical parameters

4.4 Command and operational resilience

5 Command location

6 Command protocols

7 Cross-boundary and multi-agency operations

7.1 Cross-boundary operations

7.2 Unplanned deployment across force boundaries

7.3 Planned deployment across force boundaries

8 Multi-agency operations

9 Accreditation of commanders

9.1 Occupational and operational competence within command roles

9.2 Re-accreditation and refresher process for commanders and tactical advisors

Armed deployment

1 National Decision Model

2 NDM phases

2.1 Gather information and intelligence

2.1.1 Gathering information

2.1.1.1 Assessment of the current situation

2.2 Assess threat and risk and develop a working strategy

2.2.1 Threat assessment: definition

2.2.1.1 Accuracy

2.2.1.2 Analysis

2.2.2 Working strategy

2.3 Consider powers and policy

2.4 Identify options and contingencies

2.4.1 Options

2.4.1.1 Feasible specific tactics

2.4.2 Contingencies

2.5 Take action and review what happened

2.5.1 Health and safety risk assessment

2.5.2 Briefing

2.5.3 Operational deployment

2.5.4 Medical assistance

2.5.5 Community impact assessment

2.5.5.1 The impact of armed police deployment on a community

2.5.6 Explanation and apology

3 Record keeping

4 Dealing with people

4.1 Handling subjects

4.1.1 Hostage situations

4.2 Environmental and behavioural influencers

4.2.1 Communication issues

4.2.2 Children and young people

4.2.3 Intelligence relating to subject behaviour and/or condition

4.2.4 Defusing the situation

4.3 Dealing with individuals who are emotionally or mentally distressed

4.3.1 Indicators of emotional or mental distress

4.3.2 Indicators of a severe medical condition

4.4 Provoked shootings

4.5 Other persons involved

5 Police responders

Discharge of firearms

1 Accuracy of shot

2 Physical response

3 Conventional shot

Critical shot

Discharge of less lethal weapons

Threat to life

Accountability for all rounds fired

Moving vehicles

8.1 Considerations when taking action

Post-deployment

1 Post-deployment procedures

1.1 Debriefing

1.2 Organisational learning debrief

1.3 Is an organisational learning debrief appropriate?

1.4 Who should conduct an organisational learning debrief?

1.5 Record keeping

2 Post incident procedures

2.1 Criteria for post incident investigations

2.2 Initial action

3 Immediate post incident command considerations

3.1 Initial command considerations

3.1.1 Priorities pending the arrival of the IIA

3.1.2 Initial actions of the strategic firearms commander

3.1.3 Initial actions of the tactical firearms commander

4 Management at the scene

4.1 Situational/safety critical information

5 Post incident management

5.1 Principal officers

5.2 Role of the post incident manager

5.2.1 Refresher training and re-accreditation

5.2.2 Nomination of a PIM following an incident

5.2.3 Initial PIM responsibilities

5.3 Anonymity of officers

5.4 Weapons and exhibits

5.4.1 No dispute over who fired the shots

6 Welfare considerations

6.1 Legal advice and support

6.2 Medical examination

6.3 Welfare support

7 Article 2 ECHR and the duty to investigate

7.1 Purpose of an article 2 investigation

7.2 Effective investigation

7.3 Independent investigations

7.3.1 Communication and duty of care

7.3.2 Investigative function

8 Providing accounts

8.1 Conferring

8.2 Integrity

8.3 Separation

8.4 Responsibility for decision making

8.5 Effects of trauma on memory

8.6 An early requirement for information

9 Security and welfare of officers

9.1 Officers’ families and homes

9.2 Family liaison

9.3 Defusing

9.4 Additional support

9.5 Special leave or suspension from duty

9.6 Authorisation

9.7 Media releases

9.8 Progress of the enquiry

10 Documentation and disclosure

11 Post incident responsibilities

Conducted energy devices (Taser)

1 Description

1.1 Operating requirements

1.2 Range

1.3 Stun modes

1.4 Effects

1.5 Storage

1.6 Data logging system

2 Issue and possession

2.1 Uniformed users

2.2 Covert carriage (eg, surveillance or protection duties)

3 Deployment

4 Use

4.1 Oral and visual warning

4.1.1 Visual deterrents

4.1.2 Verbal warning and contact

4.2 Risk factors

4.3 Multi-agency and cross-border arrangements

5 Post-use procedures

5.1 Aftercare

5.2 Taser information leaflets

5.3 Evidential collection of equipment

5.4 Dataport auditing

5.5 Taser evaluation forms

5.6 Evaluation checklist

5.7 Post incident referral

6 Monitoring and review

6.1 Taser SPOC

6.2 Post-use function checks

7 Training

Attenuating energy projectiles

1 Description

2 Deployment

3 Use

4 Authorisation

4.1 Public order policing

4.2 Northern Ireland

5 Effects

6 Issue and possession

6.1 Risk factors

6.1.1 Mental ill health

6.2 Oral and visual warning

6.2.1 Visual deterrents

6.2.2 Public order warning messages

6.3 Point of aim

6.4 Aftercare

6.4.1 Close monitoring

6.4.2 Medical assessment

6.4.3 Detainees

6.4.4 Persons at increased risk

7 Post-deployment

7.1 Evidential collection of equipment

7.2 Reporting

7.3 Evaluation

7.4 Unintentional discharge

8 Maintenance

9 Storage

10 Zeroing instructions

11 Training

National Police Firearms Training Curriculum

Strategic threat and risk assessment (STRA)