Stop and search

The evidence base: references and footnotes

The advice in this authorised professional practice is developed from the applicable law (in particular Code A), the Best Use of Stop and Search Scheme, HM Inspectorate of Constabulary and Equality and Human Rights Commission reports on the use of stop and search, and police professional expertise. It also draws on findings from the following research studies.

References

Bowling, B. and Phillips, C. (2007) Disproportionality and discrimination: Reviewing the evidence on police stop and search. Modern Law Review, 70: 936-61.

Bradford, B. (2015) Unintended consequences. In: Delsol, R. and Shiner, M. (eds) Stop and search: The anatomy of a police power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Chainey, S. and Macdonald, I. (2012) Stop and search, the use of intelligence and geographic targeting: Findings from case study research. London: National Policing Improvement Agency.

Delsol, R. (2015) Effectiveness. In: Delsol, R. and Shiner, M. (eds) Stop and search: The anatomy of a police power. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Eastwood, N., Shiner M. and Bear D. (2013) The numbers in black and white: ethnic disparities in the policing and prosecution of drug offences in England and Wales. London: Release

Glaser, J. (2014) Suspect race: Causes and consequences of racial profiling. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hine, J. (2015, unpublished). Stop and search: Exploring disproportionality.  Leicester: Leicestershire Police and De Montfort University.

Jackson, J., Bradford, B., Hough, M., Myhill, A., Quinton, P. and Tyler, T. (2013) Why do people comply with the law? Legitimacy and the influence of legal institutions. British Journal of Criminology, 52(6): 1,051-71.

Jackson, J., Bradford, B., Stanko, B. and Hohl, K. (2013) Just authority? Trust in the police in England and Wales. London: Routledge.

MacDonald, J., Fagan, J. and Geller, A. (2016) The effects of local police surges on crime and arrests in New York City. PLoS ONE, 11(6): 1-13.

Mazerolle, L., Bennett, S., Antrobus, E. and Eggins, E. (2012) Procedural justice, routine encounters and citizen perceptions of police: Main findings from the Queensland Community Engagement Trial (QCET). Journal of Experimental Criminology, 24 July 2012.

Mazerolle, L., Bennett, S., Davis, J., Sargeant, E. and Manning, M. (2013) Procedural justice and police legitimacy: A systematic review of the research evidence. Oslo: Campbell Systematic Reviews.

McCandless, R., Feist, A., Allan, J. and Morgan, N. (2016) Do initiatives involving substantial increases in stop and search reduce crime? Assessing the impact of Operation BLUNT 2. London: Home Office.

Miller, J., Bland, N. and Quinton, P. (2000) The impact of stops and searches on crime and the community. London: Home Office.

Miller, J. and D’Souza, A. (2015) The indirect effects of police searches on community attitudes to the police: Resentment or reassurance? British Journal of Criminology (advance access, published 5 August 2015).

MVA and J. Miller (2000) Profiling populations available for stops and searches. London: Home Office.

Myhill, A. and Quinton, P. (2010) It’s a fair cop? Police legitimacy, public cooperation, and crime reduction. London: National Policing Improvement Agency.

National Initiative for Building Community Trust and Justice (2015) Implicit Bias. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

Quinton, P. (2011a) The formation of suspicions: Police stop and search practices in England and Wales. Policing and Society, 21(4): 357-68.

Quinton, P. (2011b) The impact of information about crime and policing on public perceptions: The results of a randomised controlled trial. London: National Policing Improvement Agency.

Quinton, P., Bland, N. and Miller, J. (2000) Police stops, decision-making and practice. London: Home Office.

Quinton, P., McNeill, A. and Buckland, A. (2018) Searching for cannabis – are grounds for search associated with outcomes? London: College of Policing.

Quinton, P., Tiratelli, M. and Bradford, B. (2016) The impact of stop and search on crime in London. Ryton-on-Dunsmore: College of Policing.

Rosenfeld, R. and Fornango, R. (2014) The impact of police stops on precinct robbery and burglary rates in New York City, 2003–2010. Justice Quarterly, 31(1): 96-122.

Smith, D., Purtell, R. and Guerrero, S. (2012) Is stop, question and frisk an effective tool in the fight against crime? Paper presented at the Annual Research Conference of the Association of Public Policy and Management: Baltimore, MD, November.

Stone, V. and Pettigew, N. (2000) The views of the public on stops and searches. London: Home Office.

Taylor, B., Koper, C. and Woods, D. (2011) A randomized controlled trial of different policing strategies at hot spots of violent crime. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 7(2): 149-181.

Tyler, T. (2006) Why people obey the law. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Waddington, P., Stenson, K. and Don, D. (2004) In proportion: Race, and police stop and search. British Journal of Criminology, 44(4): 1-26.

Weisburd, D., Wooditch, A., Weisburd, S. and Yang, S.-M. (2016) Do stop, question, and frisk practices deter crime? Evidence at microunits of space and time. Criminology and Public Policy, 15(1): 31-56.

Wheller, L., Quinton, P., Fildes, A. and Mills A. (2013) The Greater Manchester Police procedural justice training experiment: The impact of communication skills training on officers and victims of crime. Ryton-on-Dunsmore: College of Policing.

Footnotes

Stop and search

  1. Stone and Pettigrew 2000; Jackson et al 2013; Bowling and Phillips 2002.
  2. Myhill and Quinton 2011.
  3. Jackson et al 2013; Myhill and Quinton 2011; Mazerolle et al 2013; Jackson et al 2012.
  4. Giacomantonio et al 2016; Wheller et al 2013.
  5. Jackson et al 2012; Myhill and Quinton 2011; and Mazerolle et al 2013.
  6. Jackson et al 2013, Miller and D’Sousa 2015.
  7. Stone and Pettigrew 2000.
  8. Miller et al 2000.
  9. Delsol 2015.
  10. See Quinton et al 2016 for summary.
  11. Quinton et al 2016.
  12. Miller et al 2000.
  13. Stone and Pettigrew 2000; Quinton 2011.
  14. Jackson et al 2012; Bradford 2015.

Fair

  1. Jackson et al 2012, Stone and Pettigrew 2000, Bowling and Phillips 2002.
  2. Jackson et al 2012; Bradford 2015.
  3. Jackson et al 2012; Bowling and Phillips 2002; Stone and Pettigrew 2000.
  4. Stone and Pettigrew 2000.
  5. Miller et al 2000.
  6. Quinton et al 2000; Stone and Pettigrew 2000.
  7. Quinton et al 2000; Quinton 2000.
  8. Miller et al 2000.
  9. Quinton 2015.
  10. Quinton 2011.
  11. Glaser 2014.
  12. Quinton 2011, 2015; Glaser 2014; National Initiative for Building Community Trust and Justice, 2015.
  13. Waddington et al ; MVA and Miller 2000; Chainey and Macdonald 2004.

Legal

  1. Jackson et al 2013.

Legal basis

  1. Eastwood et al 2013.
  2. Quinton et al 2018.
  3. Quinton et al 2018.
  4. Mazerolle et al 2012.

Professional

  1. Jackson et al 2012.
  2. Stone and Pettigrew 2000.
  3. Myhill and Quinton 2011; Jackson et al 2012; Mazerolle et al 2012; Tyler 2006.
  4. Quinton et al 2000; Jackson et al 2012.
  5. Jackson et al 2013; Myhill and Quinton 2011; Mazerolle et al 2012; Tyler 2006.
  6. Jackson et al 2012.
  7. Giacomantonio et al 2016.
  8. Myhill and Quinton 2011.
  9. Jackson et al 2013; Myhill and Quinton 2011; Mazerolle 2012; Tyler 2006.
  10. Giacomantonio et al 2016.
  11. Jackson et al 2013; Myhill and Quinton 2011; Mazerolle 2012; Tyler 2006.
  12. Giacomantonio et al 2016.

Transparent

  1. MVA and Miller 2000; Waddington et al 2004; Quinton 2015.
  2. Quinton 2011b.
  3. Quinton 2015; Bowling and Phillips 2007.
  4. Delsol 201; Quinton et al 2016.
  5. Quinton et al 2016; McCandless et al 2016; MacDonald et al 2016; Rosenfeld and Fornango 2014; Smith et al 2012; Wesiburd et al 2016.
  6. Quinton et al 2016; Tayler 2011; Groff et al 2015.

Page last accessed 20 October 2018